The two Oshawa study areas are contiguous, covering the residential areas and Oshawa's downtown core. Oshawa West contains two shopping centres in addition to the south side of a main street. Most dwellings were constructed before 1960, although in both areas, development continued into the 1960s. Although the study areas have a well-connected street grid and large numbers of jobs, the automobile is the principal mode of travel for all purposes. This is not surprising, given that Oshawa is the capital of Canada's automotive manufacturing industry.